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【Science 等】环境微生物的大规模迁徙机制 等
发布时间:2017-09-20  来源:土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室  浏览:428

【环境微生物的大规模迁徙机制】Yong-Guan Zhu, Michael Gillings, Pascal Simonet, Dov Stekel, Steve Banwart, Josep Penuelas.Microbial mass movements. Science, 2017:1099-1100  DOI: 10.1126/science.aao3007
该论文指出,污水排放是造成微生物的全球大迁徙的推手之一。其次,人和动物在世界范围内的空前流动也推动了微生物的迁徙和部分微生物的富集。(来源:科学网)
Abstract
For several billion years, microorganisms and the genes they carry have mainly been moved by physical forces such as air and water currents. These forces generated biogeographic patterns for microorganisms that are similar to those of animals and plants (1). In the past 100 years, humans have changed these dynamics by transporting large numbers of cells to new locations through waste disposal, tourism, and global transport and by modifying selection pressures at those locations. As a consequence, we are in the midst of a substantial alteration to microbial biogeography. This has the potential to change ecosystem services and biogeochemistry in unpredictable ways.
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【氮素管理】Sybil P. Seitzinger, Leigh Phillips. Nitrogen stewardship in the Anthropocene.Science, 2017:350-351 DOI: 10.1126/science.aao0812
Abstract
Nitrogen compounds, mainly from agriculture and sewage, are causing widespread eutrophication of estuaries and coastal waters (1). Rapid growth of algal blooms can deprive ecosystems of oxygen when the algae decay, with sometimes extensive ecological and economic effects. Nitrogen oxides from fossil fuel combustion also contribute to eutrophication, and nitrous oxide, N2O, is an extremely powerful greenhouse gas (GHG). On page 405 of this issue, Sinha et al. confirm that climate change is worsening nitrogen pollution, notably coastal eutrophication (2). The results highlight the urgent need to control nitrogen pollution. Solutions may be found by drawing on decarbonization efforts in the energy sector.
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【温室气体估算】R. Revesz, M. Greenstone, M. Hanemann, M. Livermore, T. Sterner, D. Grab, P. Howard, J. Schwartz. Best cost estimate of greenhouse gases.Science, 2017:655 DOI: 10.1126/science.aao4322
Abstract
The social cost of greenhouse gases should be regularly updated, especially to reflect the latest evidence about damage functions (10). Meanwhile, government and private sector analysts should continue using IWG's central estimate of $50 per ton of carbon dioxide with confidence that it is still the best estimate of the social cost of greenhouse gases.
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【土壤微生物碳泵开启陆地固碳新篇章】Chao Liang, Joshua P. Schimel & Julie D. Jastrow. The importance of anabolism in microbial control over soil carbon storage. Nature Microbiology, 2017:17105
doi:10.1038/nmicrobiol.2017.105
该文章认为微生物同化合成的碳由土壤微生物碳泵进入土壤并通过续埋效应而稳定于土壤碳库中。碳泵连接地上部植被和地下部土壤,其主要组成部分用阴阳图形象表征了碳泵的动态运转,并体现了其动态的驱动者—真细菌群落。(来源:沈阳应用生态研究所网站)
Abstract
tudies of the decomposition, transformation and stabilization of soil organic matter (SOM) have dramatically increased in recent years owing to growing interest in studying the global carbon (C) cycle as it pertains to climate change. While it is readily accepted that the magnitude of the organic C reservoir in soils depends upon microbial involvement, as soil C dynamics are ultimately the consequence of microbial growth and activity, it remains largely unknown how these microorganism-mediated processes lead to soil C stabilization. Here, we define two pathways—ex vivo modification and in vivo turnover—which jointly explain soil C dynamics driven by microbial catabolism and/or anabolism. Accordingly, we use the conceptual framework of the soil ‘microbial carbon pump’ (MCP) to demonstrate how microorganisms are an active player in soil C storage. The MCP couples microbial production of a set of organic compounds to their further stabilization, which we define as the entombing effect. This integration captures the cumulative long-term legacy of microbial assimilation on SOM formation, with mechanisms (whether via physical protection or a lack of activation energy due to chemical composition) that ultimately enable the entombment of microbial-derived C in soils. We propose a need for increased efforts and seek to inspire new studies that utilize the soil MCP as a conceptual guideline for improving mechanistic understandings of the contributions of soil C dynamics to the responses of the terrestrial C cycle under global change.

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