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【PNAS 等】海洋中的碳氮循环 等
发布时间:2016-09-18  来源:土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室  浏览:502

【环境可持续发展中的植物生物学】Joseph M. Jez*, Soon Goo Lee, Ashley M. Sherp. The next green movement: Plant biology for the environment and sustainability. Science, 2016, Vol. 353, Issue 6305, pp. 1241-1244

Abstract

From domestication and breeding to the genetic engineering of crops, plants provide food, fuel, fibers, and feedstocks for our civilization. New research and discoveries aim to reduce the inputs needed to grow crops and to develop plants for environmental and sustainability applications. Faced with population growth and changing climate, the next wave of innovation in plant biology integrates technologies and approaches that span from molecular to ecosystem scales. Recent efforts to engineer plants for better nitrogen and phosphorus use, enhanced carbon fixation, and environmental remediation and to understand plant-microbiome interactions showcase exciting future directions for translational plant biology. These advances promise new strategies for the reduction of inputs to limit environmental impacts and improve agricultural sustainability.


【海洋中的碳氮循环】Aron Stubbins. A carbon for every nitrogen. PNAS, doi:10.1073/pnas.1612995113

Biology and the environment interact, one shaping the other (1). In the oceans, the chemistry of seawater and the chemistry of life are intimately linked (2). In 1958, Alfred Redfield (3) noted that the microscopic plankton of the surface ocean contain carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous atoms in a stoichiometry of ∼105:16:1 and that as these organisms sink and decay, the deep waters of the ocean become enriched in carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous at the same ratio. This marked the beginnings of ecological stoichiometry, a growing field that is providing novel insight into the ecology and elemental cycles of the planet (4). A study in PNAS provides a new stoichiometric link, reporting that for every nitrogen consumed in the surface Atlantic Ocean, 1.12 carbons are converted from CO2 to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (5).

Carbon sits at the center of the elemental cycles. It is the backbone of the organic molecules that are the principal currency and building blocks of life. Carbon dioxide is the main anthropogenic greenhouse gas responsible for climate change (6). As phytoplankton grow in sunlit surface waters, they incorporate inorganic carbonate from seawater into organic molecules. Much of the organic carbon produced during photosynthesis is rapidly returned to the inorganic pool via respiration, with a small fraction accumulating as net community production (NCP). The carbonates incorporated by phytoplankton are the dissolved equivalent of atmospheric CO2, and, as carbonates are depleted in seawater, they are replenished by inputs of CO2 from the atmosphere. When the organic carbon produced by NCP is transported into the depths of the ocean, it provides a sink for atmospheric CO2 that is termed the biological carbon pump (7).

Export to depth in the oceans can be in the form of particulate organic carbon or DOC. Organic …


【全球农业的研究与发展】Philip G. Pardey, Connie Chan-Kang, Steven P. Dehmer & Jason M. Beddow. Agricultural R&D is on the move. Nature 537, 301–303 (15 September 2016) doi:10.1038/537301a

Big shifts in where research and development in food and agriculture is carried out will shape future global food production, write Philip G. Pardey and colleagues.


【氮固定】Erik Stokstad. The nitrogen fix. Science, 2016, Vol. 353, Issue 6305, pp. 1225-1227

Summary

A handful of biologists is working to endow major crops with the ability to "fix" nitrogen from the air into a biochemically usable form, a talent that is currently limited to certain microbes—and is essential to life. Fixed nitrogen is a key ingredient in important biomolecules, including amino acids, the building blocks of proteins. And, for now, farmers have to laboriously supply it by applying fertilizer or planting legumes, which host nitrogen-fixing bacteria in their roots. Altering cereals to produce their own nitrogen would be a tour de force of biotechnology. But it could help solve two big problems: the overuse of artificial fertilizer, which can pollute aquifers or water bodies, and the shortage of fertilizer that plagues small farmers in the developing world.

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