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【Science 等】氮对植物生长的影响与丛枝菌根真菌 等
发布时间:2016-07-04  来源:土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室  浏览:480

【丛枝菌根真菌与氮对植物生长的影响】César Terrer1,*, Sara Vicca2, Bruce A. Hungate3,4, Richard P. Phillips5, I. Colin Prentice1,6. Mycorrhizal association as a primary control of the CO2 fertilization effect. Science, 2016, Vol. 353, Issue 6294, pp. 72-74

Abstract

Plants buffer increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations through enhanced growth, but the question whether nitrogen availability constrains the magnitude of this ecosystem service remains unresolved. Synthesizing experiments from around the world, we show that CO2 fertilization is best explained by a simple interaction between nitrogen availability and mycorrhizal association. Plant species that associate with ectomycorrhizal fungi show a strong biomass increase (30 ± 3%, P < 0.001) in response to elevated CO2 regardless of nitrogen availability, whereas low nitrogen availability limits CO2 fertilization (0 ± 5%, P = 0.946) in plants that associate with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The incorporation of mycorrhizae in global carbon cycle models is feasible, and crucial if we are to accurately project ecosystem responses and feedbacks to climate change.


测量阿拉斯加的碳循环Nicholas C. Parazooa,b,1, Roisin Commanec,d, Steven C. Wofsyc,d, Charles D. Kovene, Colm Sweeneyf,g, David M. Lawrenceh, Jakob Lindaasc,i, Rachel Y.-W. Changj, and Charles E. Millera. Detecting regional patterns of changing CO2 flux in Alaska. PNAS, 2016, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1601085113

Abstract

With rapid changes in climate and the seasonal amplitude of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Arctic, it is critical that we detect and quantify the underlying processes controlling the changing amplitude of CO2 to better predict carbon cycle feedbacks in the Arctic climate system. We use satellite and airborne observations of atmospheric CO2 with climatically forced CO2 flux simulations to assess the detectability of Alaskan carbon cycle signals as future warming evolves. We find that current satellite remote sensing technologies can detect changing uptake accurately during the growing season but lack sufficient cold season coverage and near-surface sensitivity to constrain annual carbon balance changes at regional scale. Airborne strategies that target regular vertical profile measurements within continental interiors are more sensitive to regional flux deeper into the cold season but currently lack sufficient spatial coverage throughout the entire cold season. Thus, the current CO2 observing network is unlikely to detect potentially large CO2 sources associated with deep permafrost thaw and cold season respiration expected over the next 50 y. Although continuity of current observations is vital, strategies and technologies focused on cold season measurements (active remote sensing, aircraft, and tall towers) and systematic sampling of vertical profiles across continental interiors over the full annual cycle are required to detect the onset of carbon release from thawing permafrost.

对 阿拉斯加地面与大气之间的二氧化碳交换的一项研究发现,目前的空中和卫星观测策略足以探测到夏季植被吸收二氧化碳的变化,但是不能充分地量化寒冷季节来 自土壤呼吸作用的二氧化碳释放,并且提出需要穿过这个大陆内部的全年取样,从而探测未来的永冻土融化造成的可能的大量二氧化碳释放。(来源:EurekAlert!)

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